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  1. Sensor Calibration for WPI's TBR4100 Free Radical Analyzer (NO, HPO & H2S)
    June 09, 2020
    [by Nikki Scafa]   When using a TBR Free Radical Analyzer, accurate measurements of an analyte requires an accurate calibration. The calibration of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen sulfide sensors is similar. WPI oxygen and glucose sensors require different methods which will not be discussed here.         Before we begin: Make sure you have the following items. Your sensor must be polarized for the appropriate length of time. Your solutions are prepared as described in the manual. (NOTE: Here we will show an item checklist slide (below) before continuing the
  2. Benefits of Nitric Oxide Detection using the WPI Free Radical Analyzer
    February 25, 2020
    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule and is known to play a significant role in a multitude of physiological systems including the central nervous system (CNS), the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the renal system. 1-5 However, being highly reactive, detection and quantification of NO is very difficult.6,7 It requires a sensor that is sensitive, selective to NO, and easy to calibrate. WPI’s Free Radical Analyzer (4-channel TBR4100  and single-channel TBR1025) and the LabTrax Data Acquisition System with the options of using nano NO sensors, micro NO sensors, flexible micro sensors, and macro nitric oxide sensors enable amperometric (electrical based) detection of NO dissolved in liquids.  Features & Benefits of the Free Radical Analyzer and Nitric Oxide Detection System Rapid response time: < 5 sec enhances detection capability of the highly reactive, short-lived NO molecules High sensitivity: ≤2 pA/nM – enables detection of low levels of NO Excellent selectivity to NO: NaNO2 (10-6 or better) prevents contamination with other isoforms Nano and microsensors & macrosensors are available: Nano and microsensors for measurement of tiny volume or space application Macrosensors with permeable sleeve to prevent protein deposition and interference from other constituents Every sensor is quality tested and sold with a calibration certificate Simple and easy calibration and detection method User friendly software for data recording (Labtrax) Numerous citations in the literature for detection in biological tissues, cell cultures and liquids. Tips for Efficient and Accurate Detection Make fresh calibration solutions. Calibration solution, such as SNAP can be stored at 4°C for 1 week away from light (covered in aluminum foil). When precise detection is critical, perform daily calibrations before measuring unknown samples. Changes in temperature and pH are known to affect the electrical read outs. Therefore, calibration should be performed at the same temperature and pH as the sample. Follow the long-term and short-term storage instruction for maintaining functional longevity of the sensor. All the sensors have a detection range (concentration) posted in the website. Determine from literature the expected concentration of nitric oxide in your sample (e.g., produced in cell culture by specific cell type) then select the sensor that can detect the lowest concentration. If the sample concentration is high, it is possible to bring it within the detection range by diluting the sample. WPI’s Free Radical Analyzer (4-channel TBR4100 and single-channel TBR1025) and the LabTrax Data Acquisition System can also be used for detection of other free radicals, including pH, oxygen (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). For more information contact WPI Technical Support or one of our Field Applications Specialist.     More Info   References Calabrese, V.; Mancuso, C.; Calvani, M.; Rizzarelli, E.; Butterfield, D.A.; Giuffrida Stella, A.M. Nitric oxide in the central nervous system: Neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2007, 8, 766.  Loscalzo, J.; Welch, G. Nitric oxide and its role in the cardiovascular system. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 1995, 38,87–104. Lanas, A. Role of nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2008, 10, S4.  Bogdan, C. Nitric oxide and the immune response. Nat. Immunol. 2001, 2, 907–916.  Mount, P.F.; Power, D.A. Nitric oxide in the kidney: Functions and regulation of synthesis. Acta Physiol. 2006,187, 433–446. Butler, A.R.; Flitney, F.W.; Williams, D.L.H. NO, nitrosonium ions, nitroxide ions, nitrosothiols and iron-nitrosyls in biology: A chemist’s perspective. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 1995, 16, 18–22. Gaston, B. Nitric oxide and thiol groups. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 1999, 1411, 323–333. 
  3. Calibrating Your Oxygen Sensor for use with the TBR
    October 10, 2014
    World Precision Instruments chemist Nikki Scafa demonstrates how to calibrate your ISO-OXY-2 or OXELP oxygen sensor with the TBR4100 free radical analyzer. For more information on biosensors, see www.wpiinc.com/biosensors.   More Info
  4. Setting up OxyMicro and OxyMini
    April 30, 2013
    A New Generation of Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensors Based on Luminescence Lifetime Oxygen measurement is simpler than ever. Just stick a disposable, oxygen-sensitive "spot" to the inside of a flask, beaker, test tube or bottle, and fill the container  with the solution to be tested. Then, on the outside of the glass container, hold the fiber optic wand close to the spot to take a reading. As the spot reacts with oxygen, it gives off light, which is measured with the fiber optic wand. This ingenious system is highly accurate and affordable. Two different units (which use the same operating principles are available: OXY-MINI and OXY-MICRO.  The OXY-MINI system is optimized for process control and biotechnology applications. The OXY-MICRO is designed for biological research applications including implanting into tissues, cell cultures, profiling of biofilms and sediment related bioassays. The measurement principle of the sensor system is based on the detection of oxygen concentration as a function of luminescence lifetime either in dissolved or gaseous phase environments. Features Oxygen is not consumed during the experiment Immune to electrical and magnetic interference Excellent long-term stability No lengthy polarization necessary (for example, as Clark-type oxygen electrodes require) Fast response time < 0.5 s for MicroTip sensors Probe size of MicroTip sensors as small as 50µm Measurement is feasible in dry gas Optical isolation of sensor tip available for fluorescent or photosynthetically active samples Meters The OXY-MINI  and OXY-MICRO  fiber optic oxygen meters are compact, easy to transport. The instruments are designed for in/outdoor use and can be connected to a PC via a RS232 interface. Data can be visualized, analyzed and stored with the supplied software. A full range of sensors covering most biomedical applications are available. OXY-MICRO System The OXY-MICRO  is a single channel fiber optic oxygen meter for WPI’s fiber optic oxygen microsensors. MicroTipThe MicroTip (WPI #501656) shown aboveis a needle-type (27 ga.) oxygen micro sensor designed for applications where a small tip size of 50µm and a fast response time (t90) of 1s are necessary. The oxygen sensitive sensor tip consists of 140µm fiber tapered to a 50µm tip. The sensor is housed inside a stainless steel needle of 22mm length and 0.4mm diameter. This allows penetration through a septum rubber or similar material. These sensors are ideal for oxygen profiling
  5. Biosensor Specifications
    April 29, 2013
    Download a PDF version of the Biosensor Specifications Sheet here. WPI offers a range of biosensors for monitoring nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide. Specifications for these sensors are detailed below. The macrosensors are 2mm "wet" sensors. These sensors are installed in a metal "sleeve" that looks like a tiny soda straw.The sleeve has a gas permeable membrane at the tip, and it is filled with an electrolyte. When it is immersed in a solution, the gas in solution (for example, nitric oxide) diffuses through the membrane, and the sensor measures it. The microsensors are "dry" sensors. Most microsensors monitor nitric oxide, and there is also a hydrogen
  6. How to Fill a 2 mm Sensor Sleeve with Filling Solution
    April 24, 2013
    In this video, Nikki demonstrates how to prepare and fill a 2mm biosensor and prepare to calibrate an ISO-OXY-2 oxygen sensor.   More Info
  7. How to Calibrate an ISO-HPO100
    April 24, 2013
    In this video, WPI Chemist Nikki Scafa demonstrates how to calibrate the WPI ISO-HPO100 hydrogen peroxide microsensor.  More Info
  8. How to Make PBS Buffer Solution
    April 24, 2013
    In this video, WPI Chemist Nikki Scafa demonstrates how to make a PBS buffer solution for use with WPI microsensors.   
  9. How to Make 0.1M Copper II Chloride
    April 24, 2013
    In this video, WPI Chemist Nikki Scafa demonstrates how to make a 0.1M solution of CuCl2 for calibrating WPI NO microsensors.
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