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Electrophysiology

  1. Using a DAM50 for EEG Recordings in Rodents
    October 21, 2014
    A low-noise amplifier like the DAM50 is an excellent choice for EEG recording in rodents. WPI’s amplifiers were engineered for the bio-medical researcher. While 20-30μV of noise is common in bio-amplifiers, WPI’s DAM series amplifiers generate 0.4μV RMS (root mean squared) at 0.1-100Hz. (That’s equal to about 2μV peak to peak.) This setup shows one way such recordings could be made. The RC1 electrode works well for rats, and the EP1 is more suitable for mouse cranial application. For this application, you will need the following equipment: (1) DAM50 amplifier (1) MD4R micromanipulator (2) M
  2. Metal Electrode Selection Guide for Profile B
    May 01, 2013
    Profile B Microelectrodes These electrodes are sold in packages of 10. Tungsten Profile B Comparison Chart, 76 mm long, 0.216 mm shaft ItemLength InsulationThicknessShaftDiameter
  3. WPI's Low-Noise Amplifiers Outperform Cheap Imitations
    April 30, 2013
    An amplifier, in simplest terms, is an electronic device that magnifies an input signal. However, the way an amplifier is designed to handle noise and bandwidth limitations greatly affects the quality and sustainability of the final output signal. Defining Terms To knowledgeably discuss amplifiers, let’s define a few terms. Gain – The gain is the multiplier defining how much the amplitude of an input signal is increased. A signal with an X1 gain is not amplified. An X10 gain produces an output signal ten times greater than the input signal. Noise – Any unwanted signal fluctuations are called noise. While noise can also result from external sources, for the purpose of this discussion, we are primarily concerned with the noise resulting from the inner workings of the electronic device, our ampli
  4. Stimulator/Isolator Comparison Chart
    April 30, 2013
    WPI offers a range of isolators and stimulators. Use the chart below to find the components that are compatible. Isolators FeaturesInputOutputCompatible StimulatorsDLS100
  5. Chloriding Silver Wire
    April 29, 2013
    Here's how to chloride silver wire to use for making electrodes. Materials 9V transistor battery 9V transistor battery connector with color coded lead wires (2) small alligator clips 250ml beaker 175ml of 3M KCl 1 roll of 36g silver wire (0.005” dia) #2 pencil dental wax or clay forceps   Procedure Attach an alligator clip to the each lead of the 9V transistor battery connector. Pour the 3M KCl solution into the beaker. Wrap a 30cm length of the silver wire around the pencil to form a coil of ten turns. At one end of the coil, there should be a straight segment ab
  6. Ag/AgCl Half Cells
    April 29, 2013
    WPI's silver-silver chloride half cells are new, improved sintered pellets with lower resistance and high strength. They are stable and well-balanced in the presence of current. These small and inexpensive half-cells are easy to work with as bath electrodes.   RC1 /RC1T RC2
  7. Compare Dri-Ref Reference Electrodes
    April 29, 2013
    Dri-Ref™ reference electrodes were developed by WPI to have extremely low electrolyte leakage properties, hence the name “Dri-Ref.” In addition to this key feature, these electrodes exhibit stable and reproducible potential and low resistance. Stored in KCl when not in use, they have a long life expectancy. Low leakage is achieved by using KONBO™, a product combining modern ceramic and conductive polymer technology, as the liquid junction. Electrode resistance is low, an important consideration when making low-noise measurements. Although the internal filling solution contains KCI, the low fluid leakage means Dri-Ref may be used in combination with ion selective electrodes, including those for K+ and Cl-, without significant contamination from the reference electrode. The Dri-Ref electrodes are che
  8. Isolated Stimulation Explained
    April 26, 2013
    Isolated Stimulation and Stimulus Isolators The term stimulation refers to the delivery of energy of some kind to a biological tissue in order to elicit an observable response. Although the energy used in stimulation may be chemical, thermal, mechanical or electrical, this discussion will focus on electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation of biological tissues involves the delivery of current and voltage to the stimulation site. The two quantities are related by Ohm's law: V=IR Where V is the applied voltage, I is the current and R is the electrical resistance of the tissue and or the stimulating electrodes. This simple equation shows that if voltage is constant, current flow will diminish if the tissue/electrode resistance goes up, and will increase if the resistance decreases. More commonly, the resistance of tissue differs from sample to sample, and
  9. Metal Electrode Selection Guide for Profile C
    April 26, 2013
    NOTE: A heat treated tip is ideal for penetrating tough membranes. (It is not recommended for chronic implantation.) This process is performed using a microforge in which the heating element is positioned in close proximity to the tip in order to melt the Parylene-C distal to the exposed metal. It provides a smooth transition and produces better adherence of the Parylene-C to the metal. Both the KT and non-KT electrodes are heat-treatable. The heat treatment is applied only to the parylene coating. The heat melts the parylene so it feathers down close to the shank near where the tip is exposed. This removes the abrupt edge where the parylene has been removed to create the tip exposure. The purpose is to prevent the parylene from delaminating from the electrode during implantation into tissue which could catch on the edge. Heat treatment does not work well in chronic applications, because the feather edge is susceptible to fluid intrusion overtime, which will alter the impedance characteristics
  10. Metal Electrode Selection Guide for Profile A
    April 26, 2013
    Profile A Metal Microelectrodes Platinum Iridium These electrodes are sold in packages of 10. Item LengthInsulation ThicknessShaft Diameter Nominal Impedance ±20%
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