Epithelial Volt/Ohm (TEER) Meter

Order code

Non-destructively test for epithelial monolayer confluence in 2D cell cultures

  • Measures trans-epithelial electrical resistance or trans-epithelilal voltage
  • Compatible with 12 and 24 well culture plate systems out of the box
  • Includes industry standard STX2 hand held “chopstick” electrodes
  • Analog output for recording resistance or voltage measurements
  • Auto ranging from 0-10 KΩ
  • Battery powered
  • Manual TEER measurement of epithelial cells in 6, 12, 24 and 96* well plates
  • BNC output for data acquisition system
  • Compatible with EndOhm chambers
  • *96-well plate measurement requires an STX100 series electrode.

Click here to view the current Data Sheet.   


Part # Resistance Range
EVOM2 0-10 KΩ
300523 0-100 KΩ


  • You can verify performance and calibrate the meter for TEER function using provided test resistor
  • Battery powered meter is portable
  • A variety of accessory electrodes are available for measuring TEER in 6- and 96-well fixed (HTS) and removable well culture systems (See STX100 series and Endohm electrodes)


  • TEER and trans-epithelial voltage measurements in 2D cell cultures

Making TEER Measurements to Determine Cellular Confluence

The EVOM was the first instrument designed specifically to perform routine Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurement in tissue culture research. EVOM2 is the next generation, redesigned for ease of use. The EVOM2 not only qualitatively measures cell monolayer health, but also quantitatively measures cellular confluence. The unique electronic circuit of the EVOM2™ and the included STX2  electrode detect the confluence of the cellular monolayer. When combined with WPI’s Endohm chamber, the EVOM2 can also be used to perform more accurate quantitative measurements or lower resistance measurements like transendothelial electrical resistance measurements. 

Isolated battery power for 10 hours of use

The isolated power source of the EVOM2™ was specifically designed to avoid adverse effects on tissue and the formation of electrode metal deposits, even when it is plugged into a standard wall outlet. Now, the EVOM2™ is always on when you need it. In addition, its rechargeable battery allows up to 10 hours of mobile use.

Accurate reading every time

The four-and-a-half digit readout provides a range of 1-9,999 Ω. The included test electrode lets you calibrate the resistance measurements for an accurate reading every time, and the voltage meter never needs calibration. An analog BNC output is standard with the EVOM2™, providing an output port for recording data or remote display of the EVOM2™ output.

Electrode pair to measure voltage, pass current

EVOM2™ comes complete with the popular STX2 “chopstick” electrodes, 4 mm wide and 1 mm thick. Each stick of the electrode pair contains a silver/silver-chloride pellet for measuring voltage and a silver electrode for passing current. The small size of each electrode is designed to facilitate placement of the electrodes into a variety of standard cell culture wells. 

    STX2      STX3

       STX2              STX3


More Information about the EVOM2

VIDEO: Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers



See how to use and EndOhm chamber with an EVOM2 meter. 

In this video Mike shows you how to equilibrate your STX electrodes.

In this video, you can learn how to test your EVOM2.

Membrane Voltage Range +/-200 mv
Resolution 0.1 mV
Resistance Range 0 to 9999 Ω *   
Resistance Resolution 1 Ω
AC Square Wave Current +/- 10uA nominal at 12.5 Hz
Power Internal rechargeable 6V NiMH
2700 mAH batter with external
12VDC Supply for recharging
Nomimal Battery Run Time 10 hours
BNC Output  

1-10 V (1 mV/Ω)


Dimensions 19x11x6 cm (7.25x4.25x2.30")
Weight 1.4 kg (3 lb.)
Electrode Connection RJ-11 connector (telephone style)
Test Resistor External, 1000 Ω 
Environmental Range 10-38°C (50-100°F)
0-90% non-condensing relative humidity
Power Supply Universal 100-240 VAC, 120 VDC (5.5 x 2.5mm barrel positive tip), 850 mA

* 300523 is the part number for the EVOM2 with 10X the resistance range. Note that display on this unit reads in KΩ, and the display on the standard EVOM2 read Ω.

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Schneditz, G., Rentner, J., Roier, S., Pletz, J., Herzog, K. A. T., Bücker, R., … Zechner, E. L. (2014). Enterotoxicity of a nonribosomal peptide causes antibiotic-associated colitis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(36), 13181–6. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1403274111 

Molenda, N., Urbanova, K., Weiser, N., Kusche-Vihrog, K., Günzel, D., Schillers, H., … Howell, S. (2014). Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model? PLoS ONE, 9(6), e100621. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100621 

Grover, A., Hirani, A., Pathak, Y., & Sutariya, V. (2014). Brain-targeted delivery of docetaxel by glutathione-coated nanoparticles for brain cancer. AAPS PharmSciTech, 15(6), 1562–8. http://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-014-0165-0 

Guzman-Aranguez, A., Calvo, P., Ropero, I., & Pintor, J. (2014). In vitro effects of preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic drugs on human corneal epithelial cells. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics : The Official Journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 30(9), 790–8. http://doi.org/10.1089/jop.2014.0030 

Sjöqvist, S., Jungebluth, P., Lim, M. L., Haag, J. C., Gustafsson, Y., Lemon, G., … Macchiarini, P. (2014). Experimental orthotopic transplantation of a tissue-engineered oesophagus in rats. Nature Communications, 5, 3562. http://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4562 

Wise, S. K., Laury, A. M., Katz, E. H., Den Beste, K. A., Parkos, C. A., & Nusrat, A. (2014). Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression. International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, 4(5), 361–70. http://doi.org/10.1002/alr.21298 

Czupalla, C. J., Liebner, S., & Devraj, K. (2014). In Vitro Models of the Blood–Brain Barrier (pp. 415–437). http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0320-7_34 

Czupalla, C. J., Liebner, S., & Devraj, K. (2014). In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1135, 415–37. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0320-7_34 

Roh-Johnson, M., Bravo-Cordero, J. J., Patsialou, A., Sharma, V. P., Guo, P., Liu, H., … Condeelis, J. (2014). Macrophage contact induces RhoA GTPase signaling to trigger tumor cell intravasation. Oncogene, 33(33), 4203–12. http://doi.org/10.1038/onc.2013.377 

De Chiara, L., Fagoonee, S., Ranghino, A., Bruno, S., Camussi, G., Tolosano, E., … Altruda, F. (2014). Renal cells from spermatogonial germline stem cells protect against kidney injury. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 25(2), 316–28. http://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013040367 

McIntyre, B. A. S., Alev, C., Mechael, R., Salci, K. R., Lee, J. B., Fiebig-Comyn, A., … Bhatia, M. (2014). Expansive generation of functional airway epithelium from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 3(1), 7–17. http://doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2013-0119 

Bohara, M., Kambe, Y., Nagayama, T., Tokimura, H., Arita, K., & Miyata, A. (2014). C-type natriuretic peptide modulates permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 34(4), 589–96. http://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.234 

Yu, J., Li, N., Lin, P., Li, Y., Mao, X., Bao, G., … Zhao, R. (2014). Intestinal transportations of main chemical compositions of polygoni multiflori radix in caco-2 cell model. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2014, 483641. http://doi.org/10.1155/2014/483641 

Van Itallie, C. M., Tietgens, A. J., Aponte, A., Fredriksson, K., Fanning, A. S., Gucek, M., & Anderson, J. M. (2014). Biotin ligase tagging identifies proteins proximal to E-cadherin, including lipoma preferred partner, a regulator of epithelial cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Journal of Cell Science, 127(Pt 4), 885–95. http://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.140475 

Wang, L., Luo, H., Chen, X., Jiang, Y., & Huang, Q. (2014). Functional characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in altering monolayer permeability of human umbilical endothelial cells. PloS One, 9(3), e90472. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090472 

McHugh, K. J., Tao, S. L., & Saint-Geniez, M. (2014). Porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds for retinal pigment epithelium transplantation. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(3), 1754–62. http://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12833 

Al-Ghoul, W. M., Kim, M. S., Fazal, N., Azim, A. C., & Ali, A. (2014). Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers. Results in Immunology, 4, 14–22. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinim.2014.03.001

Keenan, C. R., Mok, J. S., Harris, T., Xia, Y., Salem, S., & Stewart, A. G. (2014). Bronchial epithelial cells are rendered insensitive to glucocorticoid transactivation by transforming growth factor-β1. Respiratory Research, 15(1), 55. http://doi.org/10.1186/1465-9921-15-55 

Uehara, I., Kimura, T., Tanigaki, S., Fukutomi, T., Sakai, K., Shinohara, Y., … Sakurai, H. (2014). Paracellular route is the major urate transport pathway across the blood-placental barrier. Physiological Reports, 2(5). http://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12013 

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Reaves, D. K., Fagan-Solis, K. D., Dunphy, K., Oliver, S. D., Scott, D. W., & Fleming, J. M. (2014). The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior. PloS One, 9(3), e91747. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091747 

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Lei, Y., Stamer, W. D., Wu, J., & Sun, X. (2014). Cell senescence reduced the mechanotransduction sensitivity of porcine angular aqueous plexus cells to elevation of pressure. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(4), 2324–8. http://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13317 

Nakadate, H., Inuzuka, K., Akanuma, S., Kakuta, A., & Aomura, S. (2014). Effect of amplitude and duration of impulsive pressure on endothelial permeability in in vitro fluid percussion trauma. Biomedical Engineering Online, 13, 44. http://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-13-44 

Costello, C. M., Sorna, R. M., Goh, Y.-L., Cengic, I., Jain, N. K., & March, J. C. (2014). 3-D intestinal scaffolds for evaluating the therapeutic potential of probiotics. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 11(7), 2030–9. http://doi.org/10.1021/mp5001422 

Crane, J. K., Broome, J. E., Reddinger, R. M., & Werth, B. B. (2014). Zinc protects against Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria. BMC Microbiology, 14, 145. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-145 

Mishra, R., & Singh, S. K. (2014). HIV-1 Tat C phosphorylates VE-cadherin complex and increases human brain microvascular endothelial cell permeability. BMC Neuroscience, 15, 80. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-15-80 

Shimko, M. J., Zaccone, E. J., Thompson, J. A., Schwegler-Berry, D., Kashon, M. L., & Fedan, J. S. (2014). Nerve growth factor reduces amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in human airway epithelial cells. Physiological Reports, 2(7). http://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12073 

Pongkorpsakol, P., Pathomthongtaweechai, N., Srimanote, P., Soodvilai, S., Chatsudthipong, V., & Muanprasat, C. (2014). Inhibition of cAMP-activated intestinal chloride secretion by diclofenac: cellular mechanism and potential application in cholera. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(9), e3119. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003119 

Arredondo Zamarripa, D., Díaz-Lezama, N., Meléndez García, R., Chávez Balderas, J., Adán, N., Ledesma-Colunga, M. G., … Thebault, S. (2014). Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 8, 333. http://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00333 

Fossum, S. L., Mutolo, M. J., Yang, R., Dang, H., O’Neal, W. K., Knowles, M. R., … Harris, A. (2014). Ets homologous factor regulates pathways controlling response to injury in airway epithelial cells. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(22), 13588–98. http://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1146 

Meenach, S. A., Anderson, K. W., Hilt, J. Z., McGarry, R. C., Mansour, H. M., Samantha A. Meenach, Kimberly W. Anderson, J. Zach Hilt, Ronald C. McGarry, H. M. M., … Mansour, H. M. (2014, December 20). High-Performing Dry Powder Inhalers of Paclitaxel DPPC/DPPG Lung Surfactant-Mimic Multifunctional Particles in Lung Cancer: Physicochemical Characterization, In Vitro Aerosol Dispersion, and Cellular Studies. http://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-014-0182-z 

Ghaffarian, R., & Muro, S. (2013). Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (80), e50638–e50638. http://doi.org/10.3791/50638 

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Lei, Y., Stamer, W. D., Wu, J., & Sun, X. (2013). Oxidative stress impact on barrier function of porcine angular aqueous plexus cell monolayers. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54(7), 4827–35. http://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-11435 

Chen, L., Zhu, J., Li, Y., Lu, J., Gao, L., Xu, H., … Yang, X. (2013). Enhanced nasal mucosal delivery and immunogenicity of anti-caries DNA vaccine through incorporation of anionic liposomes in chitosan/DNA complexes. PloS One, 8(8), e71953. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071953 

Schmedt, T., Chen, Y., Nguyen, T. T., Li, S., Bonanno, J. A., Jurkunas, U. V., … Giasson, C. (2012). Telomerase Immortalization of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells Yields Functional Hexagonal Monolayers. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51427. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051427 

Guzman-Aranguez, A., Woodward, A. M., Pintor, J., & Argüeso, P. (2012). Targeted disruption of core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1) induces apical endocytic trafficking in human corneal keratinocytes. PloS One, 7(5), e36628. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036628 

Alhamoruni, A., Lee, A. C., Wright, K. L., Larvin, M., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2010). Pharmacological Effects of Cannabinoids on the Caco-2 Cell Culture Model of Intestinal Permeability. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 335(1).

TORRES, R., PIZARRO, L., CSENDES, A., GARCÍA, C., LAGOS, N., Pasdar, M., … Roskelley, C. (2007). GTX 2/3 EPIMERS PERMEATE THE INTESTINE THROUGH A PARACELLULAR PATHWAY. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 32(3), 241–248. http://doi.org/10.2131/jts.32.241 

Campbell, L., Abulrob, A.-N. G., Kandalaft, L. E., Plummer, S., Hollins, A. J., Gibbs, A., & Gumbleton, M. (2003). Constitutive Expression of P-Glycoprotein in Normal Lung Alveolar Epithelium and Functionality in Primary Alveolar Epithelial Cultures. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 304(1).

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Teoh, D. A., Kamieniecki, D., Pang, G., & Buret, A. G. (2000). GIARDIA LAMBLIA REARRANGES F-ACTIN AND α-ACTININ IN HUMAN COLONIC AND DUODENAL MONOLAYERS AND REDUCES TRANSEPITHELIAL ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE. Journal of Parasitology, 86(4), 800. http://doi.org/10.1645/0022-3395(2000)086[0800:GLRFAA]2.0.CO;2 

Meerveld, G.-V. B., R, T. K., 文 タ イ ト ル和, & vitro の ラ ッ ト 空 腸 お よ び 結 腸 に お け る 木 ク レ オ ソ - ト お よ び ロ ペ ラ ミ ド の 止 瀉 効 果 の 比 較, I. (2000). Comparison of the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote and loperamide in the rat jejunum and colon in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull, 23, 952–956.

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Yang, J. J., Kim, K. J., & Lee, V. H. (2000). Role of P-glycoprotein in restricting propranolol transport in cultured rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell layers. Pharmaceutical Research, 17(5), 533–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888304 

Utsumi, H., Chiba, H., Kamimura, Y., Osanai, M., Igarashi, Y., Tobioka, H., … Sawada, N. (2000). Expression of GFRα-1, receptor for GDNF, in rat brain capillary during postnatal development of the BBB. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 279(2).

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Reichert, M., Müller, T., & Hunziker, W. (2000). The PDZ domains of zonula occludens-1 induce an epithelial to mesenchymal transition of Madin-Darby canine kidney I cells. Evidence for a role of beta-catenin/Tcf/Lef signaling. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(13), 9492–500. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10734097 

Chang, J.-E., Basu, S. K., & Lee, V. H. L. (2000). Air-Interface Condition Promotes the Formation of Tight Corneal Epithelial Cell Layers for Drug Transport Studies. Pharmaceutical Research, 17(6), 670–676. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007569929765 

Hilgendorf, C., Spahn‐Langguth, H., Regårdh, C. G., Lipka, E., Amidon, G. L., & Langguth, P. (2000). Caco‐2 versus Caco‐2/HT29‐MTX Co‐cultured Cell Lines: Permeabilities Via Diffusion, Inside‐ and Outside‐Directed Carrier‐Mediated Transport. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 89(1), 63–75. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6017(200001)89:1<63::AID-JPS7>3.0.CO;2-6 

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Takakuwa, R., Kokai, Y., Kojima, T., Akatsuka, T., Tobioka, H., Sawada, N., & Mori, M. (2000). Uncoupling of Gate and Fence Functions of MDCK Cells by the Actin-Depolymerizing Reagent Mycalolide B. Experimental Cell Research, 257(2), 238–244. http://doi.org/10.1006/excr.2000.4887 

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    Rechargeable Battery Pack for EVOM2
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Cellular Confluency of Epithelial Cells

The original EVOM was featured in this application video.

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