Calcium Neutral Ion Exchanger

Order code

Make micropipettes to record cellular concentrations

  • 0.1 mL

WPI’s Liquid Ion Exchangers (LIX), for use with the FD223A Electrometer, allow intracellular measurements to be made for cations (hydrogen, potassium and calcium).


ION H+ K+ Ca++
Na+ 12.7 1.97 5.5
Mg++ 2.95 4.9
K+ 5.4
Ca++ 2.7
USEFUL pH RANGE 2-10 4-10 4-10
SLOPE 56 mV 58 mV 28 mV
LINEAR RANGE pH 4-12 pK 0-3 pCa 1-7


*Selectivity Coefficients are expressed here as -log Kij or pKij.

Yoshida, T., Nin, F., Ogata, G., Uetsuka, S., Kitahara, T., Inohara, H., … Hibino, H. (2015). NKCCs in the fibrocytes of the spiral ligament are silent on the unidirectional K+ transport that controls the electrochemical properties in the mammalian cochlea. Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology, 467(7), 1577–1589.

Kuwana, S., Okada, Y., & Natsui, T. (1998). Effects of extracellular calcium and magnesium on central respiratory control in the brainstem-spinal cord of neonatal rat. Brain Research, 786(1–2), 194–204. Retrieved from

Welsh, D. G., Jackson, W. F., & Segal, S. S. (1998). Oxygen induces electromechanical coupling in arteriolar smooth muscle cells: a role for L-type Ca 2+ channels. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 274(6), H2018–H2024.


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