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Muscle Physiology

  1. Data Acquisition Designed for Muscle Physiology Pre-Clinical Trials
    October 20, 2015
    LabTrax 8/16 hardware combined with MDAC software is an excellent choice for WPI's SI-H line of muscle physiology products like the SI-MT Muscle Platform, SI-CTS Cell Tester and SI-HTB Horizontal Tissue Baths. This data acquisition system is ideal for testing physiological characteristics like the contractile and elastic properties of different tissues in various conditions like isometric, anisometric or isotonic states. This data acquisition system was designed with the muscle researcher in mind, because the knowledge of physiological characteristics of muscles is critical when quantifying the beneficial or adverse effects of a stimulus (like a pharmaceutical drug) on muscle function in pre-clinical studies.
  2. Electronics Setup for Muscle Tester Platforms
    April 14, 2014
    Watch as we connect an SI-H single channel, motorized horizontal tissue bath with the necessary electronics. The same connections could be made for a Muscle Tester, a Horizontal Tissue Bath or an MKB Muscle Tester Platform. These muscle testers are used for running the full gamut of muscle physiology experiments. More Info
  3. SI-HTB Horizontal Tissue Bath Setup
    April 03, 2014
    Now, you can see the assembly of the World Precision Instruments SI-HTB2 Horizontal Tissue Bath. The  SI-HTB2 is used for muscle physiology research on small tissue samples. It is available with micrometers or motor assemblies. It is also available as 2-channel or 4-channel systems. More Info
  4. Constant Load Modes Available for Muscle Physiology Experimentation
    February 13, 2014
     The Constant Load Module offers three modes of operation, including: Constant Load External Loop Bypass This block diagram (right) graphically shows the three modes of operation in the Constant Load module. Constant Load–This mode maintains a constant load on the tissue sample. SI-AOSUB Corrected Output, representative of the force transducer output, is the SI-COLUB feedback input. The SI-AOSUB Corrected Output is connected to the CL CMD (constant load command). An in
  5. A Typical Constant Load Experiment
    February 13, 2014
    The SI-COLUB Constant Load Module for performing constant load experiments, has augmented flexibility. In its primary mode (Constant Load) the unit takes an external trigger command from the force transducer to perform a constant load cycle. In addition, the module allows for a different external trigger, or you can completely bypass the module without having to switch cabling. The SI-COLUB Constant Load Module lets you maintain a constant force, muscle length or sarcomere length rather than keep the total length of the preparation constant during an isometric contraction. This is accomplished using a feedback loop. The SI-COLUB monitors a designated parameter to determine how much force is necessary. It also monitors a feedback signal. The motor position command signal driving the motor is constantly adjusted to drive the feedback signal to
  6. Eliminating the Resonance Frequency with the Anti-Oscillation Unit
    February 13, 2014
    Every force transducer has a resonance frequency at which it vibrates. The SI-AOSUB allows you to locate that frequency and filter the signal to mitigate the noise of the resonance frequency. Since each force transducer is unique, the anti-oscillation unit must be calibrated for each force transducer. Likewise, the tissue mounting hardware affects the resonance frequency. Therefore, the system must be calibrated with the mounting hardware attached to the force transducer. The SI-AOSUB Anti Oscillation module operates in conjunction with the SI-BAM21-LCB module and the motor controller to actively cancel the force transducer’s natural harmonic resonance. This is critical when performing dynamic mu
  7. How the SI-BAM21-LCB Amplifier Works
    February 13, 2014
    In a typical muscle physiology setup, a muscle is held by a force transducer. The force transducer is connected to the SI-BAM21-LCB. As the muscle contracts or releases, the transducer converts the force into an electrical current signal which is proportional to the force applied to the transducer. The SI-BAM21-LCB converts the current signal into a voltage signal that can be displayed on the screen of the recording device. Before initiating an experiment, the SI-BAM21-LCB must first be zeroed. This sets the baseline for measurements to follow. The output signal is buffered and multiplied by 1, 2, 5
  8. Common Tests Performed on Muscles Using SI-H Systems
    February 13, 2014
    Length Change Tests (No Force Feedback Required) Tests Components Test Description Parameter Determined Muscle Types Slack SI-H Muscle Research System equipped with: Linear Motor and Motor Control Amplifier Position Commands from MDAC Software Isometric Force Developed at Initial Length → Quick Release to New Length →  Muscle Shortens with No Load →Force Increases as Muscle Slack Taken Up Unloaded Shortening Velocity Tetanized Skeletal Muscle Most Smooth Muscle All Skinned Muscles Constant Velocity Release Isometric Force (Fo
  9. SI-CTS200 has a Rotating Cuvette
    February 12, 2014
    The SI-CTS200 system utilizes a unique rotating bath to dramatically improve experimental throughput. The rotating bath is designed to orient cells in the XY plane so that no physical manipulation of the position of the cell itself is required prior to capture by the grabbing devices attached to the force sensor and linear actuator.   The cuvette rotates to allow for precise positioning of the cells to be mounted. This bath has two interchangeable inserts. The first holds any 35mm glass bottom dish (WPI #FD35-100). When coating tweezers or
  10. Measuring the Relationship between Force, Energy Consumption and Calcium Concentrations in Muscle Fibers using WPI-SIH Research Systems
    February 12, 2014
    Muscle contraction and relaxation is caused by the attachment and detachment of two types of molecules (actin and myosin) to each other within the fibers that compose a muscle. These molecules are arranged as overlapping filaments within the functional units of the muscle fibers that are known as sarcomeres. Each crossbridge that is made between the end of a myosin molecule and a binding site on an actin molecule requires a molecule of ATP, an energy source, to be hydrolyzed when the end of the myosin molecule is released from the actin filament. After the release, the myosin molecule is ready to move down to another actin binding site causing the sarcomere, and the muscle, to shorten. When ATP is regenerated through a series of enzymatic reactions, another molecule, NADH, provides the energy needed for the regeneration of the ATP. The NADH fluoresces when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. The oxidized form of the molecule NAD+, which has lost its stored energy, does not fluoresce.
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