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Cell Tester

  1. Common Tests Performed on Muscles Using SI-H Systems
    February 13, 2014
    Length Change Tests (No Force Feedback Required) Tests Components Test Description Parameter Determined Muscle Types Slack SI-H Muscle Research System equipped with: Linear Motor and Motor Control Amplifier Position Commands from MDAC Software Isometric Force Developed at Initial Length → Quick Release to New Length →  Muscle Shortens with No Load →Force Increases as Muscle Slack Taken Up Unloaded Shortening Velocity Tetanized Skeletal Muscle Most Smooth Muscle All Skinned Muscles Constant Velocity Release Isometric Force (Fo) Developed at Initial Length → Muscle Released at Constant Velocity → Constant Force (Fv) Eventually Reached Force Characteristic of Release Velocity Stretch-Quick Release (QR) Isometric Force Developed at Initial Length → Stretch → Quick Release of Muscle (1% to 10% Change in Muscle Length) → Change in Force Rapid Crossbridge Attachment Rates Eccentric Contractions Isometric Force Developed at Initial Length → Stretch Muscle → Release Muscle → Shortens to Same Length with Reduced Force Effects of Excessive Sarcomere Strain Muscle Stiffness Quick Stretch & Release (<1% Change in Muscle Length) → Increase in Length → Decrease in Force Elasticity Constant Stretch/Release or Release/Stretch Release or Stretch @ Various Times during either Contraction or Relaxation Phase of Single Twitch   Cardiac & Skeletal Twitch Muscles   Vibration Protocols (No Force Feedback Required) Tests Components Test Description Parameter Determined Muscle Types Vibration of Steadily Contracted Muscle SI-H Muscle Research System equipped with: Linear Motor and Motor Control Amplifier Position Commands from MDAC Software Isometric Force Developed at Initial Length → Vibrate (Release/Restretch Pulses) → Crossbridges Detach →Muscle Slack (No Force) → Stop Vibration → Return of Isometric Force Crossbridge Detachment Rate Tetanized Skeletal Muscle Most Smooth Muscle All Skinned Muscles Muscle Stiffness Rapid Cyclic Length Changes →Decrease in Force → Unloaded Shortening of Muscle Elasticity Constant Vibration of Twitch Muscles Isometric Force during Twitch → Vibrate Muscle → Crossbridges Detach →Isometric Force Cancelled → Muscle Shortens Unloaded Shortening Velocity Cardiac & Skeletal Twitch Muscles   Constant Load Protocol (Force Feedback Required) Tests Components Test Description Parameter Determined Muscle Types Isotonic Release SI-H Muscle Research System equipped with: Linear Motor and Motor Control Amplifier Constant Load Module Commands from MDAC Software
  2. SI-CTS200 has a Rotating Cuvette
    February 12, 2014
    The SI-CTS200 system utilizes a unique rotating bath to dramatically improve experimental throughput. The rotating bath is designed to orient cells in the XY plane so that no physical manipulation of the position of the cell itself is required prior to capture by the grabbing devices attached to the force sensor and linear actuator.   The cuvette rotates to allow for precise positioning of the cells to be mounted. This bath has two interchangeable inserts. The first holds any 35mm glass bottom dish (WPI #FD35-100). When coating tweezers or
  3. Cell Tester Boast Some Ingenious Features
    April 30, 2013
    Physiologic Mechanisms in Cardiac Myocytes and Skeletal Muscle Cells The revolutionary Cell Tester SI-CTS200 is a new research tool for cellular investigation that can (without any changes) be used for one single living cell, for a small multi-cellular preparation and for single or larger skinned muscle strip preparations. Translational experiments from the single living cells to the intact multi-cellular level can be accomplished. For example, using the Cell Tester, the influence of the connective tissue on muscle function can be distinguished from the clean muscle work for the first time. Conversely, skinning allows a direct comparison between the living cell response and a cell, whereby the subcellular contractile proteins are studied with full e
  4. Many Modules for Cell/Muscle Testers
    April 24, 2013
    WPI offers several muscle tester platforms, including the: SI-CTS200 –Cell Tester for experiments on single cells and small muscle tissues SI-HTB – Horizontal Tissue Bath Plaftorm These systems include a Signal Conditioning Amplifier System which is the electronic component of the system. It is configured for a researchers individual needs and comes with the modules a researcher chooses. The amplifier system can accommodate up to eight channels. Current available SI-H modules include: SI-BAM21-LCB –Optical Transducer Amplifier SI-AOSUB –Anti-Oscillation Unit SI-MOTTEST –Linear Motor Controller SI-TCM2 –2-Channel Temperature Controller SI-SARCAM –Sarcomere Spacing Module SI-COLU –Constant Load Unit (In the future this could be a module, but for now, it is a standalone unit.) SI-BAM21-LCB The SI-BAM21-LCB powers the force transducer and converts the output of the transducer to an amplified analog voltage that is proportional to the force appliedto the transducer. The output signal can be multiplied by a factor of 1, 2, 5 or 10 to provide better resolution for a minimal change in applied force. SI-AOSUB Each force transducer has a resonance frequency at which it vibrates. The SI-AOSUB, when properly tuned to that resonance frequency, removes the resonance noise from the output signal of SI-BAM21-LCB transducer amplifier. An SI-AOSUB is necessary when a linear motor is used. SI-MOTTEST When a linear motor is required, this module powers the motor and provides an output indicating the actual motor position. It connects to an analog to digital converter output of the data acquisition system (like LabTrax 8/16) to control the waveform and timing for the motor control. The output connects with an analog input of the data acquisition system to monitor the sensor feedback from the motor. SI-TCM2 When temperature control is required, the SI-TCM2 is used. It can control two cuvettes simultaneously, using digital control to maintain a constant temperature. It has both high and low alarm warnings which can be user defined. SI-SARCAM Sarcomere spacing measurement requires a system with an optical cuvette (cuvette with a window). A laser passes through the muscle, and the diffracted light is captured with a CCD camera. By monitoring the diffraction pattern, the length of the sarcomeres can be calculated. When a laser light is shined through the muscle fibers, the light is diffracted in a pattern, which is determined by the spacing between the muscle fibers (sarcomeres). Because of the sarcomere structure, the refraction pattern looks similar to placing a grating in front of the light source. In other words, the monochromatic light (from the laser) passing through a muscle preparation is diffracted corresponding to the distance of the grating, also called the grating constant. As the light shines through the muscle fiber, the sarcromeres diffract the light in a pattern. Constant Load Module It is often important to maintain a constant sarcomere length rather than keep the total length of the preparation constant during an isometric contraction.  Even though the distance between the ends of themuscle is kept constant, the muscle contraction causes an internal shortening of the sarcomeres of the muscle. In order to get a true isometric muscle contraction, the sarcomere length must be kept constantduring the contraction. For this purpose the output signal of the camera (SI-SARCAM) can be fed into the feedback controlling the linear motor position using the SI-COLU. The feedback system controls the linear motor so that the sarcomere length is held constant. System Images Click the thumbnail to see a larger image of the Muscle Tester (left), MKB System (center) or the Cell Tester (right).     More Info If you have any questions regarding the SI-H Muscle Physiology line or other WPI products,give us a call toll-free at 866.606.1974 or email us at customerservice@wpiinc.com.
  5. SI-H Cell Tester Opens a New Window to Cellular Studies
    April 24, 2013
    New technologies developed by SI-H offer incredible opportunities for muscle physiology researchers. Up until now, many studies required an entire day to perform a single trial. Now, after isolating the cells, these same studies can be run on single cells in a matter of minutes. Because we are working on single cells, we can test living organisms. Tetanus, cardiac work loops, afterload and constant load contraction studies, calcium imaging, sarcomere spacing, NAD/NADH and FAD/FADH studies can all be performed on a single cell with the SI-H CTS200 Cell Tester system. According to Dr. Harm Knot (staff muscle physiologist), “The new Cell Tester, a novel cell biology research tool, is set to revolutionize the emerging field of
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