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  1. How Do I Select Appropriate Surgical Instruments for My Application?
    March 13, 2018
    When you are selecting surgical instruments for a procedure, here are a few key points to consider What procedure are you performing? Published research papers usually indicate which instruments other researchers have used for similar procedures. The correct surgical instrument for a particular procedure makes a difference on the outcome of that technique. What is the size of your subject? An instrument that is perfect for a 200­–300 g rat (about 22–25 cm long) may not be the best choice for a neo-natal mouse of about 15 g (about 1–2.5 cm long). How often will the instrument be used? If you perform more than 100 cuts per day, a pair of titanium scissors or a pair of scissors with tungsten carbide inserts would be worth considering. They stay sharp longer.
  2. Using the Biofluorometer with Muscle Physiology Research systems
    June 27, 2017
    The use of fluorescence for sensing and imaging of the cellular signaling pathways has emerged as an indispensable tool in modern physiology, providing dynamic information of quantity and localization of the molecules of interest. Using appropriate indicator dyes, molecules alter their fluorescent characteristics in response to ion binding or membrane integration, so that the optical signal from the indicator can be measured to monitor the amplitude and the time course of various metal ions like Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, as well as pH and membrane potential, in cellular compartments. A specific target molecule like Ca2+ is responsible for many physiological functions, such as neurotransmitter release, fertilization and ion channel functions. Studying the cellular channel functions is directly related to the transient increase in the myoplasmic free calcium concentration (Δ[Ca2+
  3. Detection of organic compounds in water analysis
    June 27, 2017
    Absorption of light correlates to the energy of a photon that is taken-up by electrons of the substance atom. The electromagnetic energy is transformed into internal energy of the absorbent substance. The absorbance of a substance quantifies how much of the incident light is absorbed by it (instead of being reflected or refracted). Precise measurements of the absorbance at many wavelengths allow the identification of a substance via absorption spectroscopy, where a sample is illuminated from one side, and the intensity of the light that exits from the sample in every direction is measured (see Fig. 1). A few examples of absorption are ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy or infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Fig 1. Concept of absorbance spectroscopy using white light and o
  4. Ca2+ Detection in Muscle Tissue using Fluorescence Spectroscopy
    June 27, 2017
    The use of fluorescent probes in cell physiology has emerged as indispensable tool in the analysis of cell functioning over recent years. The physics underlying fluorescence is illustrated by the electronic-state diagram (so-called Jablonski diagram, see Fig. 1), showing the three-stage process to create the fluorescent signal (Excitation - Excited/State Lifetime - Fluorescence Emission) in a fluorophore/indicator and simplified described below. Fig. 1– Jablonski diagram illustrating the processes of fluorescence by absorption of higher photon energy by a fluorophore and subsequent emission of lower photon energy, resulting i
  5. Z-Dimensions Are Not Created Equal
    May 01, 2013
    Cuvettes come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but one of the most important specifications of a cuvette is its Z-dimension. The Z-dimension of an instrument (cuvette holder or spectrometer) is the distance from the bottom of the cuvette chamber floor to the center of its light beam (see image). A cuvette’s Z-dimension must match the Z-dimension of the instrument with which it will be used. Each manufacturer designs its instruments with a specific Z-dimension. Common Z-dimensions include 8.5 and 15mm, and sometimes 20mm. When purchasing small volume cuvettes, the correct Z-dimension becomes critical. Matching the Z-dimension of the cuvette to the Z-dimension of the instrument ensures that the light beam passes through the center of small samples.The table below shows the standard Z-dimension of the spectrometer sample compartments for many manufacturers
  6. Surgical Loupes Defining Differences
    May 01, 2013
    Surgical Loupes help to alleviate eye strain by enlarging the image when you are working on tiny subjects or conducting precision operations. They are portable and easier to use than a surgical microscope. However, they are not created equal, and choosing the pair that's right for you is important to your satisfaction. See Selection Factors Involved in Choosing Loupes Choosing the correct surgical loupes for your application involves several factors, including resolution, working distance, field of view, depth of field,  magnific
  7. Which Alloy is Best for My Surgical Instruments?
    April 30, 2013
    Inox, Titanium, Dumoxel®, Dumastar®, Antimagnetic... Have you ever looked at the variety of metal alloys for surgical instruments and laboratory tools and wondered which is best for your needs? Here's a brief rundown. Stainless Steel - Our standard line of instruments are manufactured of highest quality materials, they are made of austenitic 316 steel commonly known as “surgical steel” or “marine grade steel.” The steel is highly corrosion resistant and it is a common choice of material for biomedical implants or body piercing jewelery. It is in compliance with ASTM F138. This WPI line is an excellent alternative to German surgical instruments. The high-quality, corrosion-resistant instruments are available at a fraction of the price of German surgical instruments. Inox - Inox i
  8. WPI's Low-Noise Amplifiers Outperform Cheap Imitations
    April 30, 2013
    An amplifier, in simplest terms, is an electronic device that magnifies an input signal. However, the way an amplifier is designed to handle noise and bandwidth limitations greatly affects the quality and sustainability of the final output signal. Defining Terms To knowledgeably discuss amplifiers, let’s define a few terms. Gain – The gain is the multiplier defining how much the amplitude of an input signal is increased. A signal with an X1 gain is not amplified. An X10 gain produces an output signal ten times greater than the input signal. Noise – Any unwanted signal fluctuations are called noise. While noise can also result from external sources, for the purpose of this discussion, we are primarily concerned with the noise resulting from the inner workings of the electronic device, our ampl
  9. DLC Coating Multiplies Useable Life of Surgical Instruments
    April 29, 2013
    When applied to surgical instruments, Diamond-Like Carbon coating dramatically increases the life of the instrument. Because DLC-coated surgical instruments are incredibly durable and resistant to wear from chemicals, moisture and atmospheric conditions, they have a much greater useful lifespan. According to the manufacturer, pure DLC coatings as thin a 2-3μm can increase the lifespan of a pair of Vannas scissors more than 100 times that of its uncoated counterpart. DLC is a revolutionary new coating that is being tested in a variety of industries. For example, when engine parts are coated, the DLC reduces friction and corrosion, increasing the life of the engine. In a completely different industry, DLC coating is being tested on metal heart valves. The coating is non-toxic, and it is so slick that biolo
  10. Line Up! (Reading a Vernier Scale)
    April 26, 2013
    The vernier scale was invented by French mathematician Pierre Vernier in 1631 as an upgrade on Pedro Nunes' measurement system for precision astrolobes. With a main scale and a sliding secondary scale, a vernier is used for making precise measurements.  Linear Vernier The sliding vernier scale is marked with divisions slightly smaller than the divisions of the main scale. For example, a vernier scale could have 11 markings for every 10 on the main scale. That's 10 divisions on the vernier scale for every 9 on the main scale. This means that the vernier divisions are each 90% of the main scale divisions. In this case, the 0 line and the 10 line on the vernier could pair up with marks on the main scale, but none of the other divisions on the vernier would match a line of the main scale. For example, the 0 and 10 lines of the vernier scale could pair up with the 0 and 9 lines on the main scale. If the 0 line pairs u
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